Tuesday, March 20, 2012

...In light of Evolution...! [ or rather in the darkness obscurrantism of all ages, made science academia by governments worldwide...!]




...if you intelligent PhD humans find any logic or sense in all this book above or the other four or more books, please realize, this is the biggest academia "brain rusting and waste" made a science study as true...! Worse than ancient bible theology academia ...!

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In the Light of Evolution:
Volume 1. Adaptation and Complex Design

http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11790
Select a link below to start reading online free!

CONTENT:

Front Matter i-xviii
Part I: INTRODUCTORY ESSAY 1-2 (skim)
1 Darwin's Greatest Discovery: Design Without Designer--FRANCISCO J. AYALA 3-22 (skim)
Part II: EPISTEMOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO BIOCOMPLEXITY ASSESSMENT 23-24 (skim)
2 Functional Information and the Emergence of Biocomplexity--ROBERT M. HAZEN, PATRICK L. GRIFFIN, JAMES M. CAROTHERS, and JACK W. SZOSTAK 25-44 (skim)
3 The Theory of Facilitated Variation--JOHN GERHART and MARC KIRSCHNER 45-64 (skim)
4 Between ‘‘Design'' and ‘‘Bricolage'': Genetic Networks, Levels of Selection, and Adaptive Evolution--ADAM S. WILKINS 65-82 (skim)
5 The Frailty of Adaptive Hypotheses for the Origins of Organismal Complexity--MICHAEL LYNCH 83-104 (skim)
Part III: FROM INDIVIDUAL ONTOGENY TO SYMBIOSIS: A HIERARCHY OF COMPLEXITY 105-108 (skim)
6 Emerging Principles of Regulatory Evolution--BENJAMIN PRUD'HOMME, NICOLAS GOMPEL, and SEAN B. CARROLL 109-128 (skim)
7 Evolution of Individuality During the Transition from Unicellular to Multicellular Life--RICHARD E. MICHOD 129-144 (skim)
8 Insect Societies as Divided Organisms: The Complexities of Purpose and Cross-Purpose--JOAN E. STRASSMANN and DAVID C. QUELLER 145-164 (skim)
9 Symbiosis as an Adaptive Process and Source of Phenotypic Complexity--NANCY A. MORAN 165-182 (skim)
Part IV: CASE STUDIES: DISSECTING COMPLEX PHENOTYPES 183-186 (skim)
10 Adaptive Evolution of Color Vision as Seen Through the Eyes of Butterflies--FRANCESCA D. FRENTIU, GARY D. BERNARD, CRISTINA I. CUEVAS, MARILOU P. SISON-MANGUS, KATHLEEN L. PRUDIC, and ADRIANA D. BRISCOE 187-204 (skim)
11 Plant Domestication, a Unique Opportunity to Identify the Genetic Basis of Adaptation--JEFFREY ROSS-IBARRA, PETER L. MORRELL, and BRANDON S. GAUT 205-224 (skim)
12 An Experimental Test of Evolutionary Trade-Offs During Temperature Adaptation--ALBERT F. BENNETT and RICHARD E. LENSKI 225-238 (skim)
13 Two Routes to Functional Adaptation: Tibetan and Andean High-Altitude Natives--CYNTHIA M. BEALL 239-256 (skim)
14 On the Origin and Evolutionary Diversification of Beetle Horns--DOUGLAS J. EMLEN, LAURA CORLEY LAVINE, and BEN EWEN-CAMPEN 257-282 (skim)
Part V: CONCLUDING ESSAY 283-284 (skim)
15 Biological Design in Science Classrooms--EUGENIE C. SCOTT and NICHOLAS J. MATZKE 285-304 (skim)
References 305-344 (skim)
Index 345-360 (skim)
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Description

In December 2006, the National Academy of Sciences sponsored a colloquium (featured as part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia series) on "Adaptation and Complex Design" to synthesize recent empirical findings and conceptual approaches toward understanding the evolutionary origins and maintenance of complex adaptations. Darwin's elucidation of natural selection as a creative natural force was a monumental achievement in the history of science, but a century and a half later some religious believers still contend that biotic complexity registers conscious supernatural design. In this book, modern scientific perspectives are presented on the evolutionary origin and maintenance of complex phenotypes including various behaviors, anatomies, and physiologies. After an introduction by the editors and an opening historical and conceptual essay by Francisco Ayala, this book includes 14 papers presented by distinguished evolutionists at the colloquium. The papers are organized into sections covering epistemological approaches to the study of biocomplexity, a hierarchy of topics on biological complexity ranging from ontogeny to symbiosis, and case studies explaining how complex phenotypes are being dissected in terms of genetics and development.
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As to my Book of Pure Logic and the Wikipedia.org Evolutionists and others that claim that Evolution is not "random" ! I gave a use of this terminology of"random" as applied to Evolution !
And below what the Book of Pure Logic explains against Evolution is explained also as a use of "random"...!

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pages. 20-21 - In Light of Evolution

CHANCE AND NECESSITY: NATURAL SELECTION AS A CREATIVE PROCESS
The fossil record shows that life has evolved in a haphazard fashion. The radiations of some groups of organisms, the numerical and territorial expansions of other groups, the replacement of some kinds of organisms by other kinds, the occasional but irregular occurrence of trends toward increased size or other sorts of change, and the ever-present extinctions are best explained by natural selection of organisms subject to the vagaries of genetic mutation, environmental challenge, and past history. The scientific account of these events does not necessitate recourse to a preordained plan, whether imprinted from the beginning or through successive inter- ventions by an omniscient and almighty Designer. Biological evolution differs from a painting or an artifact in that it is not the outcome of pre- conceived design. The design of organisms is not intelligent but imperfect and, at times, outright dysfunctional. natural selection accounts for the ‘‘design’’ of organisms because adaptive variations tend to increase the probability of survival and repro- duction of their carriers at the expense of maladaptive, or less adaptive, variations. The arguments of intelligent design proponents that state the incredible improbability of chance events, such as mutation, to account for the adaptations of organisms are irrelevant because evolution is not governed by random mutations. rather, there is a natural process (namely, natural selection) that is not random but oriented and able to generate order or ‘‘create.’’ The traits that organisms acquire in their evolutionary histories are not fortuitous but rather determined by their functional util- ity to the organisms, designed, as it were, to serve their life needs. Chance is, nevertheless, an integral part of the evolutionary process. The mutations that yield the hereditary variations available to natural selection arise at random. Mutations are random or chance events because (i) they are rare exceptions to the fidelity of the process of DnA replica- tion and because (ii) there is no way of knowing which gene will mutate in a particular cell or in a particular individual. however, the meaning ...

...of ‘‘random’’ that is most significant for understanding the evolutionary process is (iii) that mutations are unoriented with respect to adaptation; they occur independently of whether or not they are beneficial or harmful to the organisms. some are beneficial, most are not, and only the beneficial ones become incorporated in the organisms through natural selection. The adaptive randomness of the mutation process (as well as the vagaries of other processes that come to play in the great theater of life) is counteracted by natural selection, which preserves what is useful and eliminates what is harmful. Without hereditary mutations, evolution could not happen because there would be no variations that could be differ- entially conveyed from one to another generation. But without natural selection, the mutation process would yield disorganization and extinc- tion because most mutations are disadvantageous. Mutation and selection have jointly driven the marvelous process that, starting from microscopic organisms, has yielded orchids, birds, and humans. The theory of evolution conveys chance and necessity jointly enmeshed in the stuff of life; randomness and determinism interlocked in a natural process that has spurted the most complex, diverse, and beautiful enti- ties that we know of in the universe: the organisms that populate the earth, including humans who think and love, endowed with free will and creative powers, and able to analyze the process of evolution itself that brought them into existence. This is Darwin’s fundamental discovery, that there is a process that is creative although not conscious. And this is the conceptual revolution that Darwin completed: the idea that the design of living organisms can be accounted for as the result of natural processes governed by natural laws. This is nothing if not a fundamental vision that has forever changed how mankind perceives itself and its place in the universe.
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Namely "random is in Evolution as: not guided, unoriented, and chance. And determinism as self design !

And again if Science Evolution could isolate itself from logic and Philosophy, the basis for all thought and analysis, they still pulled off the biggest story made true in Academia...!

One the biggest mysteries to be addressed in my Book 2 of Pure Logic, is the abyss between mater and the human mind, not defined or explained sufficiently to this day...! And much much more !



...if you intelligent PhD humans find any logic or sense in all this book above or the other four or more books, please realize, this is the biggest academia "brain rusting and waste" made a science study as true...! Worse than ancient bible theology academia ...!
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